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Bronchitis And Pneumonia - Various Differences Explained

It is very difficult to understand the differences between bronchitis and pneumonia. Both are diseases of the lower respiratory system and have an equally adverse effect on pulmonary air passages. Proper knowledge about the difference between pneumonia and bronchitis facilitates correct diagnosis, a factor that is of utmost importance in the effective management and treatment of respiratory disorders.


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Fluoroquinolones are approved for use only in people older than 18. They can affect the growth of bones, teeth, and cartilage in a child or fetus. The FDA has assigned fluoroquinolones to pregnancy risk category C, indicating that these drugs have the potential to cause teratogenic or embryocidal effects. Giving fluoroquinolones during pregnancy is not recommended unless the benefits justify the potential risks to the fetus. These agents are also excreted in breast milk and should be avoided during breast-feeding if at all possible.

Bronchitis is a pulmonary disease which occurs when the air passes into the lungs suffer from inflammation due to a tracheal infection. The membrane lining the interior of the air ways get swollen and the cells in it start seeping out fluid. The immediate symptom is quite obviously severe coughing.

The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections.

Chronic bronchitis is a long-term condition that can last anywhere from three weeks to two years. It always comes with a danger of relapse. In severe cases of chronic bronchitis, the bronchi get dilated, and this makes the patient more vulnerable to all types of infection. Due to its life-threatening nature, it should be taken seriously, and proper medical care should be taken to keep it in check.

What is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is a severe infection of the lungs in which pus and other fluids fill the alveoli and prevent the free flow of air into the lungs. Due to this, the body does not get sufficient oxygen, and the cells are unable to function normally. Headache, excessive sweating, fatigue, and lack of appetite are some of the symptoms of pneumonia. The condition, if not treated with care, can cause death.

Side effects The fluoroquinolones as a class are generally well tolerated. Most adverse effects are mild in severity, self-limited, and rarely result in treatment discontinuation. However, they can have serious adverse effects.

Third Generation. The third-generation fluoroquinolones are separated into a third class because of their expanded activity against gram-positive organisms, particularly penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, and atypical pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Although the third-generation agents retain broad gram-negative coverage, they are less active than ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas species.

Tests for bronchitis Generally doctors diagnose bronchitis by the common symptoms observed in the patient. There is no blood test involved here. But if the condition is serious you might need to get a chest x-ray done. The other two tests performed occasionally are phlegm culture or Oxygen saturation test.

The fluoroquinolones are a family of synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial agents with bactericidal activity. The parent of the group is nalidixic acid, discovered in 1962 by Lescher and colleagues. The first fluoroquinolones were widely used because they were the only orally administered agents available for the treatment of serious infections caused by gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas species.

If the condition is due to viral infection, polluted conditions, or heavy smoking, it is of no use taking antibiotics because they can do nothing to eliminate irritants or viruses. Antibiotics are useful only in case of bacterial infection.

Opportunistic pneumonia: As long as your immune system is in good condition, you don't have to worry about contracting this disease. However, people with weak immune systems should take special care not to get infected.

The fluoroquinolones are a relatively new group of antibiotics. Fluoroquinolones were first introduced in 1986, but they are really modified quinolones, a class of antibiotics, whose accidental discovery occurred in the early 1960.

Second-generation agents include ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin is the most potent fluoroquinolone against P. aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin are the most widely used second-generation quinolones because of their availability in oral and intravenous formulations and their broad set of FDA-labeled indications.

Conditions treated with Fluoroquinolones: indications and uses The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections. The serum elimination half-life of the fluoroquinolones range from 3 -20 hours, allowing for once or twice daily dosing.

Regional and occupational pneumonia: For example, exposure to chemicals or cattle can cause this condition. What is Bronchitis? Bronchitis is a disorder characterized by inflammation of the bronchi or air passages that transport air from the trachea to the lungs. Inflammation of the bronchi leads to the accumulation of mucus, which causes the blocking of the bronchial cells. The body then takes refuge in the cough mechanism to get rid of the accumulated mucus. Unfortunately, cough, while it gets rid of excess mucus, also makes the air passages more susceptible to infection. Moreover, if the infection continues, the tissues of the bronchi might get damaged.

Prevention of bronchitis Quitting the habit of smoking will definitely prevent bronchitis. Passive smoking is equally injurious and you are advised to stay away from a smoker if you really wish to keep away bronchitis. You should be careful about the exposure to dust particles, smoke and other irritants. Air pollution is another crucial reason behind the prevalence of bronchitis.

Gastrointestinal effects. The most common adverse events experienced with fluoroquinolone administration are gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain), which occur in 1 to 5% of patients. CNS effects. Headache, dizziness, and drowsiness have been reported with all fluoroquinolones. Insomnia was reported in 3-7% of patients with ofloxacin. Severe CNS effects, including seizures, have been reported in patients receiving trovafloxacin. Seizures may develop within 3 to 4 days of therapy but resolve with drug discontinuation. Although seizures are infrequent, fluoroquinolones should be avoided in patients with a history of convulsion, cerebral trauma, or anoxia. No seizures have been reported with levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and gemifloxacin. With the older non-fluorinated quinolones neurotoxic symptoms such as dizziness occurred in about 50% of the patients. Phototoxicity. Exposure to ultraviolet A rays from direct or indirect sunlight should be avoided during treatment and several days (5 days with sparfloxacin) after the use of the drug. The degree of phototoxic potential of fluoroquinolones is as follows: lomefloxacin > sparfloxacin > ciprofloxacin > norfloxacin = ofloxacin = levofloxacin = gatifloxacin = moxifloxacin. Musculoskeletal effects. Concern about the development of musculoskeletal effects, evident in animal studies, has led to the contraindication of fluoroquinolones for routine use in children and in women who are pregnant or lactating. Tendon damage (tendinitis and tendon rupture). Although fluoroquinolone-related tendinitis generally resolves within one week of discontinuation of therapy, spontaneous ruptures have been reported as long as nine months after cessation of fluoroquinolone use. Potential risk factors for tendinopathy include age >50 years, male gender, and concomitant use of corticosteroids. Hepatoxicity. Trovafloxacin use has been associated with rare liver damage, which prompted the withdrawal of the oral preparations from the U.S. market. However, the IV preparation is still available for treatment of infections so serious that the benefits outweigh the risks. Cardiovascular effects. The newer quinolones have been found to produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older compounds. Evidence suggests that sparfloxacin and grepafloxacin may have the most cardiotoxic potential. Hypoglycemia/Hyperglycemia. Recently, rare cases of hypoglycemia have been reported with gatifloxacin and ciprofloxacin in patients also receiving oral diabetic medications, primarily sulfonylureas. Although hypoglycemia has been reported with other fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin and moxifloxacin), the effects have been mild. Hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity reactions occur only occasionally during quinolone therapy and are generally mild to moderate in severity, and usually resolve after treatment is stopped.

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Urinary tract infections (norfloxacin, lomefloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Lower respiratory tract infections (lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Skin and skin-structure infections (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Urethral and cervical gonococcal infections (norfloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Prostatitis (norfloxacin, ofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Acute sinusitis (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin (Avelox), trovafloxacin) Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin (Zagam), gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Community-acquired pneumonia (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin)

If your symptoms do not clear up, your doctor may prescribe something for you to help open your airway. If you have chronic bronchitis, your Doctor will speak more to you about it and will prescribe some form of treatment for it. Chronic bronchitis can usually be found in smokers. The smoking causes the symptoms to be worse and the treatment for it will probably include quitting smoking.

 
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It is possible to draw up any number of treatment plans for acute bronchitis. Follow your doctor's advice, avoid irritants, and adopt healthy patterns of lifestyle.

It seems that everyone I know is sick. Everyone I know has a bad cough. This got me thinking to the last time I had a really bad cough that I could not shake. I just kept taking over the counter drugs, hoping it would get better and it did not. I was having bouts of coughing and breathlessness and had to stop what I was doing so I could recover. Usually this meant if I was jogging or working out, I had to sit down and take a break. And if you are anything like I am, this is a huge thing to do.

Home remedies for bronchitis There are numerous home remedies available to treat bronchitis naturally. A mixture of black pepper, honey, ginger paste and clove powder make a great medicine for the bronchitis patients. You can also give honey with spinach juice to the bronchitis patients. Onion juice, orange juice, turmeric, ginger etc are other effective herbs that can cure severe bronchitis without any side effects.

Because of concern about hepatotoxicity, trovafloxacin therapy should be reserved for life- or limb-threatening infections requiring inpatient treatment (hospital or long-term care facility), and the drug should be taken for no longer than 14 days.

I finally went to the Doctor and he explained to me that I had bronchitis. I was wondering how I had gotten bronchitis. And he explained that it was a viral infection that I probably picked up somewhere or from someone. The many pollutants in the air can carry it. There are two types of bronchitis. One is acute and the other is chronic. Acute bronchitis usually lasts for a few weeks, while chronic bronchitis happens frequently for several years. In simplest terms, bronchitis is just an inflammation in your bronchial tubes or the tubes that carry oxygen to your lungs.

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For both types of bronchitis, the major symptoms include: Coughing, Mucus, having shortness of breath, feeling tired, wheezing, having difficulty breathing during physical activity.

Because of their expanded antimicrobial spectrum, third-generation fluoroquinolones are useful in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, acute sinusitis and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, which are their primary FDA-labeled indications. The third-generation fluoroquinolones include levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and sparfloxacin.

- Gram negative bacteria causes certain cases of community-acquired pneumonia. It also attacks people suffering from chronic lung disorders and children suffering from cystic fibrosis.

Types of Pneumonia There are different types of pneumonia. Atypical Pneumonia: Bacteria are responsible for these types of pnuemonia, including walking pneumonia. A person suffering from this variety could have a dry cough. It is a mild variety, and the patient need not be admitted to the hospital.

Fluoroquinolones disadvantages: Tendonitis or tendon rupture Multiple drug interactions Not used in children Newer quinolones produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older agents

Several factors are responsible for pneumonia; however, the major causes of this condition are bacteria. - Streptococcus pneumoniae causes community-acquired pneumonia in around 20-60 percent adults and 13-30 percent children.

Seeking treatment Often bronchitis patients recover naturally with general medication. Cough syrups can make the coughing situation manageable. The doctor can prescribe an inhaler to treat wheezing and clear off the congestion in the nasal path. If the patient has temperature for a long time or coughing blood then it is evident that the bronchitis has become severe and can turn out to be pneumonia. In this case he should be hospitalized immediately.

Even if you feel that the symptoms that you are experiencing may not be bronchitis, be sure to see your Doctor as soon as possible, as it may be another infection in your lungs. The coughing and breathlessness is cause for concern. The coughing bouts I would have were very strong and would cause me to have to take a break from what ever I was doing. If I was at work I would have to take a quick time out. It is not any fun when you are not able to breathe. Bronchitis can hamper a lot of your daily activities and the sooner you get it checked out the better.

First Generation. The first-generation agents include cinoxacin and nalidixic acid, which are the oldest and least often used quinolones. These drugs had poor systemic distribution and limited activity and were used primarily for gram-negative urinary tract infections. Cinoxacin and nalidixic acid require more frequent dosing than the newer quinolones, and they are more susceptible to the development of bacterial resistance.

Causes and Treatment of Bronchitis Around ninety percent of the people contract acute bronchitis due to viral infection. Many cases are also caused due to bacterial infection. If you contract acute bronchitis many times, you might contract chronic bronchitis sooner or later. Infection need not always be the cause for acute bronchitis. If you live in a dirty, polluted area or if you a heavy smoker, you stand a greater risk of contracting chronic bronchitis.

Classification of Fluoroquinolones As a group, the fluoroquinolones have excellent in vitro activity against a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The newest fluoroquinolones have enhanced activity against gram-positive bacteria with only a minimal decrease in activity against gram-negative bacteria. Their expanded gram-positive activity is especially important because it includes significant activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Types of bronchitis Basically, there are two types of bronchitis--acute and chronic bronchitis. Acute bronchitis is a short-term condition accompanied by a bad flu or a cold. It can keep you in a miserable condition for around two weeks. In certain cases, viral bronchitis can last for 8-12 weeks.

Another alternative would be a natural supplement. Bronchitis can be treated with few known herbs that have been used in the Amazon jungles. Those herbs can be found in Bronocal, which is an all natural safe way to fight and treat bronchitis.

- Group A or streptococcus pyogenes is also responsible for pneumonia. - Staphylococcus aureus causes pneumonia in about 10-15 percent of hospitalized people. A fragile immune system and pre-existing viral influenza go hand in hand with this variety of pneumonia.

Symptoms Dry cough or cough with phlegm is the first and common symptom of bronchitis. The continuous cough attack can sustain for at least two weeks and gradually the patient develops pain in his abdomen and chest. This can be as serious as flouting the chest if proper curative measures are not taken immediately. Fever, wheezing, sore throat, nasal congestion and paining muscles are other symptoms of bronchitis.

Aspiration Pneumonia: In this condition, bacteria are present in the oral cavity. If the bacteria remain in the oral cavity, they are harmless. However, if they penetrate the lungs, perhaps due to a weakening of the gag reflex, they could cause pneumonia.

Second Generation. The second-generation fluoroquinolones have increased gram-negative activity, as well as some gram-positive and atypical pathogen coverage. Compared with first-generation quinolones, these drugs have broader clinical applications in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis, sexually transmitted diseases, selected pneumonias and skin infections.

Fluoroquinolones advantages: Ease of administration Daily or twice daily dosing Excellent oral absorption Excellent tissue penetration Prolonged half-lives Significant entry into phagocytic cells Efficacy Overall safety

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Fourth Generation. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones add significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobes while maintaining the gram-positive and gram-negative activity of the third-generation drugs. They also retain activity against Pseudomonas species comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones include trovafloxacin (Trovan).

All of the fluoroquinolones are effective in treating urinary tract infections caused by susceptible organisms. They are the first-line treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in patients who cannot tolerate sulfonamides or TMP, who live in geographic areas with known resistance > 10% to 20% to TMP-SMX, or who have risk factors for such resistance.

Certain viruses such as SARS (severe acute respiratory distress syndrome) virus, adenoviruses, herpesviruses, influenza viruses, RSV (respiratory syncytial virus), and HPV (human parainfluenza virus) also cause pneumonia.

Causes Often the prevalence of bronchitis is observed during the cold season. Generally it is associated with a respiratory infection. The Flu viruses are held responsible for this disease. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the bacteria causing bronchitis. If you have inhaled certain harmful chemical particles through dusts and smoke, it can lead towards severe bronchitis. Smokers and aged people are prone to bronchitis.




Yury Bayarski is the author of OriginalDrugs.com - website, offering patches and natural health products. More information about antibiotic medications is available on author's website.


 
 
     
 
 





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