bronchial pneumonia contagious - Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Classification, Uses and Side Effects
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Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Classification, Uses and Side Effects

The fluoroquinolones are a relatively new group of antibiotics. Fluoroquinolones were first introduced in 1986, but they are really modified quinolones, a class of antibiotics, whose accidental discovery occurred in the early 1960.


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Because of their expanded antimicrobial spectrum, third-generation fluoroquinolones are useful in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, acute sinusitis and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, which are their primary FDA-labeled indications. The third-generation fluoroquinolones include levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and sparfloxacin.

The fluoroquinolones are a family of synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial agents with bactericidal activity. The parent of the group is nalidixic acid, discovered in 1962 by Lescher and colleagues. The first fluoroquinolones were widely used because they were the only orally administered agents available for the treatment of serious infections caused by gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas species.

Balance-pH-Diet.com informs people about the over-acidification of the body due to fast paced and unhealthy lifestyles, which is the reason for many diseases and weight gain.

Allergies The toxins produced within an acidic, oxygen deprived environment as well as the absorption of undigested proteins is major cause of allergy conditions. When the digestive system is weakened, a wide range of allergic reactions can occur, e.g. food allergies, and the overall susceptibility to allergens is increased.

There are two kinds of Bronchitis regarding the agent that caused them. We can speak about a Bronchitis caused by viruses and which doesn't respond to the antibiotics treatment, and a Bronchitis caused by bacteria, such as whooping cough which respond to the antibiotic therapy. The treatment is not for a very long time, it lasts for five to ten days.

Because one of the symptoms characteristic for Bronchitis is cough, doctors prescribes anti-tusives. This must be a good choice, but studies and patient's reaction showed very little effect.

Fourth Generation. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones add significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobes while maintaining the gram-positive and gram-negative activity of the third-generation drugs. They also retain activity against Pseudomonas species comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones include trovafloxacin (Trovan).

Second Generation. The second-generation fluoroquinolones have increased gram-negative activity, as well as some gram-positive and atypical pathogen coverage. Compared with first-generation quinolones, these drugs have broader clinical applications in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis, sexually transmitted diseases, selected pneumonias and skin infections.

In the history of medicine there are a lot of doctors who prescribed antibiotics for the patients with acute bronchitis and there was no beneficial result for them. Patients waited to be cured , but their condition was even worsen. But there are also some situations when the patients are looking for the doctor to prescribe antibiotics and when they receive a prescription without antibiotics they don't trust the doctor anymore. So it is very good for the doctor to inform the patients about all the aspects of the treatment and to make them to understand that antibiotics are not always the best choice.

Acne There are many different forms of acne, and not few are linked to an unhealthy diet. Especially foods that are highly acidic tend to cause acne.

Children are more affected by infections of those parts, including bronchitis. In the majority of children, bronchitis is the cause of a viral infection. The treatment in such cases of bronchitis should only be rest, plenty of fluid and a lot of love. The reason why many doctors prescribe antibiotics in cases of bronchitis in children is not already known. Antibiotics are known for treating a bacteria, but in almost ninety of the bronchitis cases this is not the case. A viral infection is the cause of bronchitis, not a bacteria. In adults, especially the one that smoke, things are a little different. Because of the smoke, their bronchi are already damaged and a bronchitis due to a bacteria infection is more probable. Even in these cases, bronchitis will not be treated with antibiotics until you have coughed for at least one to two weeks. So in children, antibiotics should not be a treatment for bronchitis.

Second-generation agents include ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin is the most potent fluoroquinolone against P. aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin are the most widely used second-generation quinolones because of their availability in oral and intravenous formulations and their broad set of FDA-labeled indications.

Sometimes people think that if the doctor prescribe them a lot of medication they'll be cured, but this is not a rule. In acute Bronchitis it is not necessary to prescribe a lot of medication, it is just important to understand the cause of the disease.

Conclusion The only way of avoiding the over-acidification of the body and thus acidosis is to live according to an alkaline diet (by means of eating highly alkaline foods or taking alkaline green food dietary supplements) and drinking plenty of alkaline water. This will help getting rid of acid wastes and restore health body cells.

Side effects The fluoroquinolones as a class are generally well tolerated. Most adverse effects are mild in severity, self-limited, and rarely result in treatment discontinuation. However, they can have serious adverse effects.

There is not very much material on cases of bronchitis in children, because of the fact that there are not many things to say. The cause of the bronchitis is almost always a virus and there are no bronchitis complications when children are involved. They will experience a lot of coughing when suffering from bronchitis, but children recover on their own from bronchitis. The same viruses that give a child a runny nose are also responsible for bronchitis. So in cases of bronchitis in children there is not much to do to prevent it. What is done to prevent a cold, a flu can also be done in cases of bronchitis.

Conditions treated with Fluoroquinolones: indications and uses The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections. The serum elimination half-life of the fluoroquinolones range from 3 -20 hours, allowing for once or twice daily dosing.

Fluoroquinolones are approved for use only in people older than 18. They can affect the growth of bones, teeth, and cartilage in a child or fetus. The FDA has assigned fluoroquinolones to pregnancy risk category C, indicating that these drugs have the potential to cause teratogenic or embryocidal effects. Giving fluoroquinolones during pregnancy is not recommended unless the benefits justify the potential risks to the fetus. These agents are also excreted in breast milk and should be avoided during breast-feeding if at all possible.

Because of concern about hepatotoxicity, trovafloxacin therapy should be reserved for life- or limb-threatening infections requiring inpatient treatment (hospital or long-term care facility), and the drug should be taken for no longer than 14 days.

A wrong prescription of antibiotics treatment can have a lot of negative consequences. First of all antibiotics are expensive and they may cause adverse side effects such as abdominal pain, diarrhea and rash. All this may require further treatment. If the administration of antibiotics lasts for a long period, they can induce resistance and the treatment against other infections becomes useful.

Frequent Colds, Bronchitis, Infections, Headaches Only when our pH level is fairly balanced, the binding of oxygen to the hemoglobin protein of our red blood cells in the lungs operates. If the pH is too acidic, microbes in our respiratory systems can grow much more easily, and in that way cause bronchitis, pneumonia and sinusitis, and invade our cell system. This can result in cough, bronchial spasms (asthma), colds, infections and headaches.

Gastrointestinal effects. The most common adverse events experienced with fluoroquinolone administration are gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain), which occur in 1 to 5% of patients. CNS effects. Headache, dizziness, and drowsiness have been reported with all fluoroquinolones. Insomnia was reported in 3-7% of patients with ofloxacin. Severe CNS effects, including seizures, have been reported in patients receiving trovafloxacin. Seizures may develop within 3 to 4 days of therapy but resolve with drug discontinuation. Although seizures are infrequent, fluoroquinolones should be avoided in patients with a history of convulsion, cerebral trauma, or anoxia. No seizures have been reported with levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and gemifloxacin. With the older non-fluorinated quinolones neurotoxic symptoms such as dizziness occurred in about 50% of the patients. Phototoxicity. Exposure to ultraviolet A rays from direct or indirect sunlight should be avoided during treatment and several days (5 days with sparfloxacin) after the use of the drug. The degree of phototoxic potential of fluoroquinolones is as follows: lomefloxacin > sparfloxacin > ciprofloxacin > norfloxacin = ofloxacin = levofloxacin = gatifloxacin = moxifloxacin. Musculoskeletal effects. Concern about the development of musculoskeletal effects, evident in animal studies, has led to the contraindication of fluoroquinolones for routine use in children and in women who are pregnant or lactating. Tendon damage (tendinitis and tendon rupture). Although fluoroquinolone-related tendinitis generally resolves within one week of discontinuation of therapy, spontaneous ruptures have been reported as long as nine months after cessation of fluoroquinolone use. Potential risk factors for tendinopathy include age >50 years, male gender, and concomitant use of corticosteroids. Hepatoxicity. Trovafloxacin use has been associated with rare liver damage, which prompted the withdrawal of the oral preparations from the U.S. market. However, the IV preparation is still available for treatment of infections so serious that the benefits outweigh the risks. Cardiovascular effects. The newer quinolones have been found to produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older compounds. Evidence suggests that sparfloxacin and grepafloxacin may have the most cardiotoxic potential. Hypoglycemia/Hyperglycemia. Recently, rare cases of hypoglycemia have been reported with gatifloxacin and ciprofloxacin in patients also receiving oral diabetic medications, primarily sulfonylureas. Although hypoglycemia has been reported with other fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin and moxifloxacin), the effects have been mild. Hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity reactions occur only occasionally during quinolone therapy and are generally mild to moderate in severity, and usually resolve after treatment is stopped.

 
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Urinary tract infections (norfloxacin, lomefloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Lower respiratory tract infections (lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Skin and skin-structure infections (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Urethral and cervical gonococcal infections (norfloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Prostatitis (norfloxacin, ofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Acute sinusitis (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin (Avelox), trovafloxacin) Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin (Zagam), gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Community-acquired pneumonia (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin)

All of the fluoroquinolones are effective in treating urinary tract infections caused by susceptible organisms. They are the first-line treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in patients who cannot tolerate sulfonamides or TMP, who live in geographic areas with known resistance > 10% to 20% to TMP-SMX, or who have risk factors for such resistance.

Low Energy and Chronic Fatigue When having our cells constantly exposed to an overly acidic environment our biological terrain's oxygen level drops, leaving us tired and fatigued. This will allow parasites, fungus, bacteria, mold and viral infections to flourish and gain a hold throughout the body.

Fluoroquinolones disadvantages: Tendonitis or tendon rupture Multiple drug interactions Not used in children Newer quinolones produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older agents

Classification of Fluoroquinolones As a group, the fluoroquinolones have excellent in vitro activity against a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The newest fluoroquinolones have enhanced activity against gram-positive bacteria with only a minimal decrease in activity against gram-negative bacteria. Their expanded gram-positive activity is especially important because it includes significant activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

In our first part we talked about some of the more serious conditions caused by acidosis. But even (at first glance) minor conditions can occur through overly acidic body conditions, which will be highlighted here at part #2.

The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections.

Usually the agents that produce Bronchitis are viruses, bacteria or fungi so this is one of the causes why this disease doesn't respond to the treatment with antibiotics. There are also medicine articles and books which doesn't support the prescription of antibiotics in Bronchitis.

It is usual for some doctors to prescribe antibiotics in some diseases even if they aren't necessary. Antibiotics have been prescribed for years in acute Bronchitis too, but they are not a solution for this disease.

Underweight Yeast and fungus produced in an acidic environment can feed on our nutrients and thus reduce the absorption of everything we eat by as much as 50%. Without protein the body can't produce enzymes, hormones or other chemical components necessary for cell energy and organ activity. This causes people to become very thin, which is not healthier than being overweight. As alkalizing and oxygenating takes place, the body naturally begins to seek its own ideal weight.

Third Generation. The third-generation fluoroquinolones are separated into a third class because of their expanded activity against gram-positive organisms, particularly penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, and atypical pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Although the third-generation agents retain broad gram-negative coverage, they are less active than ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas species.

Studies have shown that an acidic, anaerobic (which is also the lack of oxygen) body environment encourages the breeding of fungus, mold, bacteria, and viruses. As a result, our inner biological terrain shifts from a healthy oxygenated, alkaline environment to an unhealthy acidic one (acidic pH scale).

First Generation. The first-generation agents include cinoxacin and nalidixic acid, which are the oldest and least often used quinolones. These drugs had poor systemic distribution and limited activity and were used primarily for gram-negative urinary tract infections. Cinoxacin and nalidixic acid require more frequent dosing than the newer quinolones, and they are more susceptible to the development of bacterial resistance.

To choose an appropriate treatment for a short -term Bronchitis it is recommended to be taken in consideration all the aspects of the disease. First of all it is a pulmonary disease and the lungs are vital organs and it is also very important to know the agent that produced the disease. The treatment strategies must be related to individuals, pathology and diagnosis.

Fluoroquinolones advantages: Ease of administration Daily or twice daily dosing Excellent oral absorption Excellent tissue penetration Prolonged half-lives Significant entry into phagocytic cells Efficacy Overall safety

It is a lot of "hard work" for our body to neutralize and detoxify these acids before they can act as poisons in and around the cells, ultimately changing the environment of each cell. As soon as our internal environment becomes too acidic, the body starts to set up defense mechanisms in order to minimize the damage these acids can do to vital organs. Some of the body's reactions are:

Bronchitis is caused by the inflammation of the bronchi of the lungs as a result of influenza or a cold and it is characterized by a persistent and frustrating cough.This occurs especially in winter because of the cold air, or even by breathing a polluted atmosphere air or by smoking.

Bronchitis is better understood if one knows what is the anatomy of the respiratory system, especially the airways. These are air passages. The throat and the mouth are the beginning of the airway system, then come the bronchi, bronchioles and last the alveoli, which healp the oxygen get into your bloodstream.

When you get bronchitis, the bronchi are infected by a virus. This ifection causes swelling and the production of much mucus than in normal cases. The main bronchitis symptom is cough. You can also feel some pain when coughing if you have bronchitis. If children are exposed to smoke from tobacco, they are more at risk of developing bronchitis. Because this smoke irritates the airways, they are more sensitive and thus bronchitis is more at home.


 
 
     
 
 





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